“It is Important to Prepare Ourselves for the Future Career”: A Study of Indonesian Student’s Self-Directed Experience on Career Exploration

  • Ragwan Mohsen Alaydrus International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Siti Rafiah Abd. Hamid International Islamic University Malaysia
Keywords: Career Exploration, High School Student, Self-Directed Learning


Lack of career exploration leads to career indecisiveness among Indonesian high school students. According to some studies, successful career exploration is determined by students’ initiative. However, no consistent answer about factors that make the students self-directedly engage in career exploration. This study is aimed to explore student’s self-directedness during the career exploration, including the factors that encourage student’s career exploratory behavior. This single case study used semi-structured interview and document analysis to investigate the experience of one Indonesian high school student. Two themes emerged from the data: involvement factor in career exploration, which determined by internal and external influence, and qualities of self-directedness, which is reflected by the employment of strategies and self-awareness. Recommendation for parents and educators to provide exposure to various activities, explicit teaching of self-directed learning and related skills is also essential to build students’ initiative in career exploration.


Betz, N. E., & Voyten, K. K. (1997). Efficacy and outcome expectations influence career exploration and decidedness. The Career Development Quarterly, 46(2), 179-189.

Blustein, D. L., & Noumair, D. A. (1996). Self and identity in career development: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(5), 433-441.

Boyer, N. R. (2003). The learning contract process: Scaffolds for building social, self-directed learning. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(4), 369.

Boyer, S. L., Edmondson, D. R., Artis, A. B., & Fleming, D. (2014). Self-directed learning: A tool for lifelong learning. Journal of Marketing Education, 36(1), 20-32.

Dozier, V. C., Sampson Jr, J. P., Lenz, J. G., Peterson, G. W., & Reardon, R. C. (2015). The impact of the Self-Directed Search Form R Internet version on counselor-free career exploration. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(2), 210-224.

Francom, G. M. (2010). Teach me how to learn: Principles for fostering students’ self-directed learning skills. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 7(1), 29-44.

Garrison, D. R. (1992). Critical thinking and self-directed learning in adult education: An analysis of responsibility and control issues. Adult Education Quarterly, 42(3), 136-148.

Garrison, D. R. (1997). Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(1), 18-33.

Gibbons, M. (2003). The self-directed learning handbook: Challenging adolescent students to excel. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Grow, G. O. (1991). Teaching learners to be self-directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41(3), 125-149.

Huynh, D., Haines, S. T., Plaza, C. M., Sturpe, D. A., Williams, G., Rodriguez de Bittner, M. A., & Roffman, D. S. (2009). The impact of advanced pharmacy practice experiences on students' readiness for self-directed learning. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(4), 65.

Kocaman, G., Dicle, A., & Ugur, A. (2009). Research Briefs. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Level of Nursing Students Enrolled in a Problem-Based Curriculum. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(5), 286-290.

Kracke, B. (2002). The role of personality, parents and peers in adolescents’ career exploration. Journal of Adolescence, 25(1), 19-30.

Kranzow, J., & Hyland, N. (2016). Self-directed learning: Developing readiness in graduate students. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 13(2), 1-14.

Lopulalan, H. (2015). Siswa masih bingung tentukan pilihan jurusan di SNMPTN. Retrieved September 28, 2017, from http://wartakota.tribunnews.com/2015/02/16/siswa-masih-bingung-tentukan-pilihan-jurusan-di-snmptn.

Nguyen, L. T. C., & Gu, Y. (2013). Strategy-based instruction: A learner-focused approach to developing learner autonomy. Language Teaching Research, 17(1), 9-30.

Orawiwatnakul, W., &Wichadee, S. (2011). A Comparison Of Students' Outcomes In Two Classes: Business Administration Students VS Communication Arts Students Based On Self-Directed Learning Activities. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 4(5), 23.

Paa, H. K., & McWhirter, E. H. (2000). Perceived influences on high school students' current career expectations. The Career Development Quarterly, 49(1), 29-44.

Patrick, J., Eliason, G. T., & Samide, J. L. (Eds.). (2011). Career development in higher education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Rogers, M. E., Creed, P. A., & Glendon, A. I. (2008). The role of personality in adolescent career planning and exploration: A social cognitive perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(1), 132-142.

Rotherham, A. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2010). “21st-Century” skills. American Educator, 17(1), 17-20.

Seifert, C., Newbold, C., & Chapman, R. (2016). Put me in coach: Self-regulated directed learning as tactical power. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 13(1), 1-11.

Smith, R. M. (1990). Learning to learn across the life span. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Taveira, M. D. C., & Moreno, M. L. R. (2003). Guidance theory and practice: The status of career exploration. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 31(2), 189-208.

Zulkaida, A., Made Taganing Kurniati, N., Retnaningsih, R., Muluk, H., & Rifameutia, T. (2012). Pengaruh locus of control dan efikasi diri terhadap kematangan karir siswa sekolah menengah atas (SMA). Proceeding PESAT, 2, 1-4.

How to Cite
Alaydrus, R., & Abd. Hamid, S. (2019). “It is Important to Prepare Ourselves for the Future Career”: A Study of Indonesian Student’s Self-Directed Experience on Career Exploration. Indonesian Journal of Educational Counseling, 3(2), 107-118. https://doi.org/10.30653/001.201932.87
Research Based Article